19.10.2 portanto therefore

Portanto is semantically equivalent to por isso, but not as transparent. Tanto is an adjective and means so much (So much people are in the street) or a substantivated adjective (So much is still do be done). A literal translation would therefore be "because of so much" or something like that and this is not equivalent to therefore. This conjunctions exists in all roman languages, in French pourtant, in Italian pertanto, in Spanish por lo tanto but it is intransparent anyway and doesn't become more transparent if we know that it steems from the latin tantum.

[Sometimes we can find in grammar books that portanto is an adverb, however it is hard to back this thesis with arguments. An adverb doesn't have any syntactical function, one can leave it out and the sentence remains grammaticaly correct, although the meaning may change: He learned it quickly <=> He learned it. However a conjunction cannot be left out: I had a problem with my car, therefore I was late. <=> I had a problem with my car, I was late. The assertion made here is wrong: , A classe de palavras de portanto. Eventually we can say that it is a conjunction pronoun. We don't see that, because in opposite to por isso the pronoun doesn't show up, but obviously the conjunction implicitely refers to something.]

portanto deshalb / daher
Estava bem preparada para o teste, portanto não ficou nervosa.
She was well prepared for the exam, therefore she was not nervous.
Choveu bastante, portanto a colheita está garantida.
It has rained enough, the havest is sure.
Aquele é um bom aluno, portanto deverá ser aprovado.
He is a good student, therefore he should be passed.
Você é o proprietário do carro, portanto é o responsável.
Your are the owner of the car, therefore you are responsible.

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