19.2.3 Quando (when), enquanto (while), assim que (as soon as) with indicativo and conjuntivo

Quando (when), enquanto (while) and assim que (as soon as) can be used in two completely different contexts. The subordinate clauses introduced by these conjunctions can describe an action / event that happened in the past. This case is easy. We use the indicative.

Quando, enquanto and assim que can as well introduce subordinate clauses that describes an action / event that will happen in the future and in this case we use the conjunctive and to be more precise, Portuguese is an exception here, the futuro do conjuntivo. It is useful to see, in order to avoid confusions, that the futuro do conjuntivo looks like the infinitivo pessoal in regular verbs. There is no difference in the form, but there is a very big difference in the syntactical function. The futuro do conjuntivo is a verbform and can be used in a subordinate clause introduced by a conjunction. The infinitivo pessoal is, like the infinitivo, a verbal noun, can therefore have the syntactical function of a noun and can therefore be used together with a preposition. The futuro do conjuntivo steems from the 3rd person plural, for instance falaram. If we leave out the personal ending -am, we get the stem falam and this looks like the infinitivo. Since the personal endings are the same and the steem is the same as well, there is no difference, in the case of the regular verbs, between the futuro do conjuntivo and the infinitivo pessoal.

(Remark: The famous song "Dime cuando tú vendrás" is a serious infringement of the Spanish standard grammar. If the event / action of the subordinate clause introduced by cuando refers to the future, in Spanish as well the subjuntivo / subjunctive is compulsory. It should be: "Dime cuando tú vengas". That doesn't fit with them melody that requires that the pronunciation is on the second syllable, but would be grammatically correct.)


Annotation 1: The exercise requires to be acquainted with the sequence of tenses see 14. the sequence of tenses
Annotation 2: You can find on the internet the indicativo in subordinate clauses referring to the future. This complies as less with the Portuguese standard grammar as it complies with the Spanish standard grammar.

Choose the right option in the following sentences.

As long as you have a wish, you have a reason to live.
Enquanto um desejo, terás uma razão para viver.
I found it while I packed the bag.
Encontrei isto enquanto a fazer as malas.
You will know it as soon as I have made a decision.
Saberás assim que me .
As soon as I was 21 years old I left the quarter and travelled around.
Assim que 21 anos, deixei o bairro para viajar.
Get me informed when you do it again.
Avisa-me quando isso outra vez.
She hated when people did that.
Ela odiava quando as pessoas isso.*


* One could believe that the sentence requires a conjuntivo, because odiar ( to hate) is a verb that requires the conjuntivo. This is true, if the sentence in introduced with que, but not true, if it is introduced with quando and a temporal clause.




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