The description of relationships in space or ask for these relationships is much more complicated than it could seem at first glance, see for instance 21.2.3. To describe more complex relationships we have to combine the interrogative adverb with a preposition.
Onde / where is an interrogative adverb because it asks for an adverbial. Something that stands for an adverb / adverbial is an adverb itself: Where did you bought your bicycle? => In a bike shop.
|de onde (donde)||= from where (asks for the origin of a mouvement: Where are you from? Also used in metaphorical sense.)|
|para onde||= where (Asks for the final goal of a mouvement. It is used especially in a context where the mouvement is definitive, see 22.4.)|
|aonde||= where ( Asks for the final goal of a mouvement. In case that mouvement is definitive there is a preference for para onde.)|
|até onde||= how far, towards where|
|desde onde||= from where (Can be confused with de onde, but there is a difference. De onde is used in the case of a mouvement. Desde onde is used to describe a position, from where an acticon is performed: From where we have the best view?|
|por onde||= No direct translation possible. In general the structure of the question has to be changed: Porque não olha por onde anda? <=> Look out where you go along?)|
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