|acima (above) is the opposite of abaixo (below)|
|Estacionou o carro mais acima.|
|I parked the car further above.|
|Vou lá acima buscá-las.|
|I go up to get them.|
|Vamos lá acima.|
|Let's go up.|
|O copo não está meio vazio, está meio cheio e a nossa ambição é enchê-lo até acima.|
|The glass is not half empty, it is half full and it is our ambition to fill it completley.|
|acima de unter, unterhalb|
|Ela está acima de qualquer suspeita.|
|She is above any suspicion.|
|O evento foi acima de nossas expectativas.|
|The event exceeded our expectations.|
|O castelo está situado acima da cidade.|
|The castle is above the city.|
|Minha avó mora três andares acima do meu.|
|My grandmother lives three floors above mine.|
|Em cima as an adverb|
|Eles ficaram lá em cima.|
|They remained up there.|
|em cima de|
|O livro está em cima da mesa.
The book is on the table.
|O cão saltou para cima da cadeira.
The dog jumped on the chair.
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In a sentence like "This car is more expensive than this one" we compare the intensity of a property between two objects. This is called comparative. In a sentence like "This is the most expensive car of all" we compare the intensity of a property between one object an all other elements of the group this object belongs to. (In our case the cars.)
(It is possible as well to compare the intensity of two properties in one object, "He is more cunning than intelligent", but this is something completely different.)The comparative can describe a higher intensity, a lower intensity or an equal intensity.
|superiority:||John runs fast.||Peter runs faster than John.|
|inferiority:||Peter doesn't run as fast as John.|
|equality:||Peter runs as fast as John.|
|superiority:||This chair is heavy.||This chair is more heavy than that one.|
|inferiority:||This chair is not as heavy as that one.|
|equality:||This chair is as heavy as that one.|
|superiority:||He eats the most.|
|inferiority:||He eats the less.*|
|equality:||He eats as much as the others.|
|superiority:||It is the most labourious work of all.|
|inferiority:||It is the less laborious work of all.|
|equality:||This work is as laborious than the others.|
The formation of the comparative and the superlative is identical for the adjective and the adverb and, apart from some exceptions we are going to talk about soon, is realised in an analytical way, in other words with mais. (synthetical: good => better => best / analytical: beautiful => more beautiful => the most beautiful)
The comparative of superiority is realised mit mais (more), the comparative of inferiority with menos (less) the comparativ of equality with tão. The element with which one compares is connected with (do) que. Do can be left out, if an object is followed by a pronoun. (Pay attention to the fact that the superlative, see below, connects the group with de.)
|superiority:||Fala lentamente.||Fala mais lentamente que ele.
She speaks slower than he.
|inferiority:||Fala menos lentamente que ele.
She speaks less slow than he.
|equality:||Fala tão lentamente como ele. *
She speaks as slow as he.
|superiority:||Um movimento lento.||Um movimento mais lento do que pensei.
A mouvement slower than I thought.
|inferiority:||Um movimento menos lento do que pensei.*
A mouvement less slow than I thought.
|equality:||Um movimento tão lento como pensei.
A mouvement as slow as I thought.
* If there is verb, do que is compulsory.
The superlative of superiority / inferiority and equality have the same structure. They are formed with menos / mais + de + article. Actually the superlative of equality has the same structuren, only the de is left out. The comparison article for the superlative is de and not que. See examples below.
|superiority:||Rodrigo é o mais preguiçoso de todos os alunos.|
|Rodrigo is the laziest of all students.|
|inferiority:||Paulo é o menos preguiçoso de todos os alunos.|
|Rodrigo is the less lazy of all students.|
|equality:||Rodrigo é tão preguiçoso como os outros alunos.|
|Rodrigo is as lazy as all other students.|
|subject||verb in the corresponding form||corresponding article||particle of comparison||type of comparison||verb in the corresponding form||group|
|Victor||é||o||que||mais||fala||de todos nós.|
|Juliette||é||a||que||mais||fala||de todos nós.|
|Jeanine e Solange||são||as||que||mais||falam||de todos nós.|
|Jeanine e Solange||are||the||who||most||speak||of us.|
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