18.2. exercise: The gerundio to shorten subordinate clauses

Some subordinate clauses can be substituted with the gerundio and with the infinitivo, see 18.1.7. However the fact that it works sometimes, doesn't mean that it works always. Both forms have different syntactical functions, the infinitivo is a verbal noun and can be used as a noun, the gerundio is an adverb, and can be used as an adverb, and both forms have inherently different semantical meanings. The gerundio for instance describes inherently a lasting action or event, the infinitive can only, together with a preposition, describe the punctual incidence between two actions / events. The infinitivo is introduced by a preposition and can therefore describe more relationships between the finite and the infinite verb, because the preposition can describe this relationship.

The infinitive is a verbal noun, has the syntactical function of a noun and can be substituted by any noun. As a verbal noun it can be desribed more precisely by an adjective, "To think too much is bad" and can have a direct objet, "To see her made him glad". It is verbal noun, have characteristics of a noun and characteristics of a verb.

infinitive: Fiz um empréstimo para viajar.
He took a loan in order to make a trip.
noun: Fiz um empréstimo para a sua casa.
He took a loan for his house.
infinitive: Apesar de estar triste ele continua sorridente.
Although he was sad, he laughed.
noun: Apesar disso ele continua sorridente.
Despite that, he laughed.
infinitive: Por ter chegado tarde não havia ninguém na recepção.
As he arrived late, there was nobody at the reception.
noun: Pelo mau tempo, não havia ninguém na recepção.
Because of the bad weather, there was nobody at the reception.

The gerundio Portuguese, in opposite to the English gerund, doesn't have the syntactical function of a noun, but the syntactical function of an adverb / adverbial. However this adverb can be specified by other adverbs, "Laughing loud, he left the room". An adverb doesn't have any syntactical function, it can be left out. The meaning of the sentence would change, but the sentence would still be grammatically correct: "Smoking he waited for her" <=> "He waited for her". Beeing an adverb, it can be substituted by any adverb.

gerundio: Acordei achando que havia algo de errado.
When I awoke I realized that something was wrong.
adverbiale Bestimmung: Acordei num quarto.
I awoke in a room.
gerundio: Sim, é surpreendente, afirma sorrindo.
Yes, this is surprising he confirmed smiling.
adverbiale Bestimmung: Sim, é surpreendente, afirma no mesmo instante.
Yes, this is surprising he confirmed immediately.

In English as well as in Portuguese the infinitive and the gerundio / present participle can have complements. Transitive verbs can only be used as a gerundio if they have a complement. That's the same thing in English. "He saw children selling" <=> "He saw children selling sweets".

Nas ruas havia crianças vendendo doces.
In the streets were children selling sweets.
Fazendo isso, você mesmo poderá verificar o que conseguiu entender.
Doing this, you can verify what you have understood.
Em vez de fazer isso, leia nossas dicas!
Instead of doing this, you can read my tips.
Alegraram-se ao receber as medalhas.
They were happy when they received their medals.

Decide in the following sentences which of the two options corresponds to English sentence and explain your choice. You get the answer by clicking on the eye.

1) It is dangerous to do that. .
Fazer isso é muito perigoso. infinitivo
Fazendo isso é muito perigoso.gerundio
2) The teacher helps the student to do it himself, in order that he learns it by doing.
O professor orienta o aluno para que este aprenda a fazê-lo. infinitivo
O professor orienta o aluno para que este aprenda fazendo-o.gerundio
3) Smiling he went away.
Foi embora sorrir.infinitivo
Foi embora sorrindo.gerundio
4) I will call later to talk about the details.
Ligo depois para falar sobre os detalhes.infinitivo
Ligo depois falando sobre os detalhes.gerundio
5) I hear that since I am living.
Toda a minha vida vivi ouvir isso.infinitivo
Toda a minha vida vivi ouvindo isso.gerundio
6) Let's go to your place to hear music.
Vamos a tua casa ouvir música.infinitivo
Vamos a tua casa ouvindo música. gerundio
7) Working hard, we can do it in two years.
Trabalhar muito, podemos fazê-lo em 2 anos.infinitivo
Trabalhando muito, podemos fazê-lo em 2 anos.gerundio
8) You want to be successfull without working hard.
Queres ter sucesso sem trabalhar muito.infinitivo
Queres ter successo sem trabalhando muito. gerundio
9) You have been telling that for 5 years now.
Já vem dizer isso por 5 anos.infinitivo
Já vem dizendo isso por 5 anos.gerundio
10) If I need to say something, I say it loud.
Quando preciso dizer algo faço-o em voz alta.infinitivo
Quando preciso dizendo algo faço-o em voz alta.gerundio
11) Some tricks how to get good marks without studying.
Truques para fazer uma boa prova mesmo sem ter estudado tanto.infinitivo
Truques para fazer uma boa prova mesmo sem tendo estudado tanto. gerundio

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